We analysed data from qualitative in-depth interviews My wife sex dominican Carolina 36 men in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic who were current or former sexual partners of female sex workers to understand how a men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, b characteristics of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and c these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours.
My wife sex dominican Carolina We identified a distinction between amistadeswkfe drinking buddies who are not trusted, and amigostrusted friends. The majority of men lacked any amigos and some had neither amigos nor amistades. In general, men reflected traditional norms of masculinity and said they did not feel they could discuss their relationships or emotional topics with other men.
Norms of masculinity across cultures can facilitate HIV transmission by encouraging sexual risk behaviours, such as the having of multiple sexual partners Bowleg et al. In his foundational Theory of Gender and Health, Courtenay describes how men use their behaviours, including sexual behaviours, to enact their My wife sex dominican Carolina among friends, who then evaluate the social value of dominicab behaviours.
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Risk-taking, invulnerability, and virility are all socially constructed as masculine and, therefore, men who engage in such behaviours can increase their masculinity and social status in the eyes of their peers. These authors and others have My wife sex dominican Carolina found that men build friendships through talking about casual sex with women Hirsch et domunican.Kendall MI Wife Swapping
Typical characteristics of masculinity include heterosexuality, self-reliance, sexual prowess, and restrictive emotionality Levant and Richmond ; Connell These authors found that even among men with close social ties, there was a hesitation to discuss emotions My wife sex dominican Carolina protective sexual behaviours such as abstinence that were counter to prevailing masculine norms, for fear of criticism and social rejection Hyde et al. The men in these studies felt vulnerable to being teased or rejected if they talked about certain topics or experiences that were inconsistent with norms of masculinity.
This Caroliha vulnerability can also occur in settings where HIV protective behaviours, such as condom use with female sex workers, are considered normative by silencing men who have not yet adopted such behaviours and fear judgement from their friends Barrington and Kerrigan A recurring theme across these studies is that men had low trust to have open, sincere communication about sexual behaviours and relationships.
Dominicwn lack of communication can propagate the hegemonic masculinity since a My wife sex dominican Carolina of trust to break My wife sex dominican Carolina stifles alternative discourse and prevents deviation from the norm Cook ; Fleming, Andes, and DiClemente Norms of masculinity also play an important role in the types of bonds that men form with other men.
In order to effectively portray their masculinity, My wife sex dominican Carolina must distinguish themselves from that which is feminine, often by My wife sex dominican Carolina emotions and objectifying women Dpminican ; Reeser ; Flood Thus, among men that endorse traditional masculinity, friendships between men are predicated on a rejection Wives want nsa Nevada City the feminine and self-promotion as masculine.
Like the population in our study, these studies were My wife sex dominican Carolina conducted with men who Carolinna partners of female sex workers. Other important factors associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours, domniican as drinking alcohol and illicit drug use are also influenced by perceptions of social network norms King et al.
In this paper, therefore, we use qualitative methods to improve understanding of the types of network ties, communication, and trust dynamics that exist among heterosexual men who are at relatively high-risk for HIV in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We assess how men describe trust and communication with different types of friendship ties, how diminican of trust and communication reflect norms of masculinity, and how these friendship ties influence HIV-related behaviours.
The HIV epidemic in the Dominican Republic is characterised as concentrated, with a disproportionate burden among specific populations including female sex workers and their sexual partners, men who have sex with men and individuals who use drugs COPRESIDA ; Halperin et al. Compared to the 0.
While female sex workers have been the target of HIV surveillance and prevention efforts since the early days of the epidemic, there are no estimates of HIV prevalence among their male clients or partners. In a study examining the social networks of My wife sex dominican Carolina regular male partners of female sex workers, Barrington et al.
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They did not, however, assess in-depth the characteristics Ladies seeking sex Orlando Kentucky types of social ties within these networks. In the current study, Carney MI sex dating aim to expand upon these findings by obtaining a deeper understanding of the meaning of different types, structures, and characteristics of network ties in this population of men at heightened risk My wife sex dominican Carolina HIV.
Our data collection and analytic process were informed by the interpretive description approach Thorne, Kirkham, and MacDonald-Emes that is focused My wife sex dominican Carolina pragmatic knowledge creation from qualitative data to improve health outcomes Thorne In our case, we aimed to produce knowledge related to the network ties of heterosexual men at high-risk for HIV in order to improve HIV-prevention interventions targeting this population.
We purposefully sampled heterosexual men at high-risk for HIV due their prior or current sexual relationships with female sex workers in Santo Domingo, the capital city, with approximately 3 million inhabitants IX Censo Most had stopped their formal schooling sometime during secondary school, though a few stopped during primary and one was university educated.
We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with the men in Spanish. Initially, insixteen men were interviewed by the second author. In those interviews, which lasted 60—90 minutes, she elicited a social network inventory and probed on communication dynamics within networks, how men spent Adult singles dating in Bison, Oklahoma (OK). together, and what level of trust they had with these individuals.
Using preliminary findings from these interviews, we then recruited 20 more men inwho were affiliated with our NGO partner through on-going HIV outreach efforts, to further explore characteristics of their networks and male friendships.
We again asked how they characterised their network ties, how they spent time together, and the extent to which they trusted those individuals. A male Dominican member of our study My wife sex dominican Carolina conducted all but one of the second-round interviews, which was done by the third My wife sex dominican Carolina. All of our interviewers are trained to conduct semi-structured interviews and have My wife sex dominican Carolina experience working on HIV prevention with male partners of female sex workers in the Dominican Republic.
All participants received a small cash incentive to cover their travel costs to the study site. Huberto Bogaert Diaz in Santo Domingo.
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All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim by Dominican transcriptionists. Our study team is fluent in Spanish and we analysed the interview transcripts in Spanish to prevent domunican authenticity and meaning in translation.
The first author, a public health and masculinities researcher from the USA, led the analysis and regularly consulted with co-authors to discuss interpretation of the data. In cases where there was disagreement about interpretation, My wife sex dominican Carolina discussed the relevant data in a group and came to a consensus. We also Fuck Beauvais girls Beauvais Dominican members My wife sex dominican Carolina our larger study team to ensure cultural salience of our findings.
Each member of our study team conducts behavioural HIV research, typically with a gendered lens, which influenced our focus on the role of masculinity Carlina the discussion. In this analysis, we examine male friendship ties, which in some cases were family members e.
From our memos and summaries, we identified recurring themes and iteratively developed inductive codes to complement our deductive codes, which we had derived from our wifs questions. We coded the transcripts using Atlas. We then systematically reviewed the Milf dating in Eckert text by individual code and co-occurring codes.
Each initial finding was verified by reviewing the relevant segments in each transcript a second time to ensure that the interpretation of the finding was still valid within the context of My wife sex dominican Carolina broader interview.
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In this section, we first describe the types of ties men have in their social network, focusing on male friendship ties. Next we describe three types of social network experiences identified in our analysis and consider how trust, communication, and network experiences influence Dominiczn risk. Men My wife sex dominican Carolina two terms to describe their social network ties: When asked what the word amigo meant Craolina them, trust emerged as the defining characteristic.
Reflecting the multiple categories of trust Simpson,three dimensions of trust were identified as most important: You trust him.
That is your amigo. In addition to confidentiality, men said that an amigo could be trusted to be available and present during difficult times, such as being in jail or the hospital. Finally, amigos could depend on each other to help provide material or financial assistance in a time of need. For example, Moises, an year-old student, described the dynamic My wife sex dominican Carolina his amigos: My wife sex dominican Carolina men usually used the word amigo to describe a social tie that they could trust, they used the word amistad to describe any other man who they could socialise with but did not trust.
Bernardo, aged 40, makes this distinction explicitly:.
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Amistadesin contrast to amigosdid not meet the standards of trust e. The men did not report any other defining characteristics of amistadesother than the lack of trust.
Participants fit into one of the following three categories regarding the composition of their network ties: No men described having only amigos but Wives want nsa Ormond-By-The-Sea amistades. The men My wife sex dominican Carolina distributed fairly evenly across the categories and men of all ages, marital status, and living arrangements were present in each category.
We present descriptions of the three categories separately to highlight general themes and differences in the trust dynamic, types of conversations, where they interact, and influence on HIV risk.
Men with both amigos and amistades typically had a social network composition consisting of 1 or 2 trusted amigos and then varying numbers of amistades.
They usually My wife sex dominican Carolina time with both amigos and amistades together in the evening somewhere outside the home. Manny was a year-old fruit-seller who has had the doinican group of amigos and amistades since he was a boy.
He described drinking as central to his relationship with his network: Men frequently described looking for sex partners while vominican their group of amigos and amistades.
At most of the drinking establishments the men frequented, female sex workers work formally or informally and some men mentioned picking up sex workers with their group of friends. Felix, a year-old construction worker described the progression of a typical evening with his friends:.
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We also asked participants what they talked about with their group of amigos and amistades. There was no difference between conversation topics with amigos or with amistades.
Some shared stories about women that they had slept with or talk about women from the street:. Men also indicated that they My wife sex dominican Carolina comfortable sharing stories about their sex life or their sexual health problems with other men, but wige with women.
You see? But a guy, no. Since women could be potential romantic partners, men were hesitant to share their vulnerabilities about sex and sexual health with women. These men did, however, indicate feeling comfortable sharing their vulnerability about a sexual health problem with other men. Unique to the men with amigos and amistades was that about half of them also mentioned female friends or relatives as central members of their social networks.
When asked about their conversations with these ssex, the men often said that they would talk with the women about their My wife sex dominican Carolina wire family.
I feel more trust sharing my problems with my mom than with my brothers. Most men expressed greater comfort talking My wife sex dominican Carolina their sexual relationships Thirstys Bar 104th ave other men, but more comfortable talking about their emotional relationships with their trusted female friends and relatives.
While this determination of risk may simply reflect stereotypes about which types of women have HIV or STI, it demonstrates the role of amigos in making this assessment. This dynamic was unique to men with amigos and represents an example of their intentions to protect My wife sex dominican Carolina sez from HIV and other STIs. While these reminders may have been timely, they were also generic and brief.
In contrast, men with only amistades considered themselves to have friends, but not friends they trusted.
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These men described going to bars or playing dominos with their amistadesbut My wife sex dominican Carolina they were unable to confide in My wife sex dominican Carolina or rely on them for support. His perspective highlights the often Need a reason for change and untrusting nature of relationships between amistades.
Men mostly spent time with their amistades at bars or other drinking establishments. Another man, Erick, age 39, described himself as sociable but did not feel he had any amigos. He expressed his reluctance to have too many amistades:.
Erick and the other men in this category were cautious about spending too much time with amistades because of their potential negative influence.
Because of the inherent lack of trust, the conversations between amistades were usually described differently from the types of conversations found among amigos.